Nitrogen is formally considered to have been discovered by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, nitrogen is a colourless, Nitrogen has two main uses: cooling and as an inert atmosphere

Production: In an industrial, Nitrogen gas is produced by the fractional distillation of liquid air, or by mechanical means using gaseous air. In a chemical laboratory, it is prepared by treating an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride with sodium nitrite.
NH 4 Cl  + NaNO 2 → N 2  + NaCl  + 2 H 2 O

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Applications of Nitrogen Gaseous nitrogen (GAN) is used as a raw material or inert gas, while liquid nitrogen (LIN) is used for refrigeration

In the processing industry, nitrogen is used to:
- Fill and pressurise gas shock absorbers and hydraulic springs.
- Perform leak tests and protect against corrosion.
- Protect and inert electric parts during manufacturing and storage.
- Create a high-purity inert environment for the manufacture of semiconductors and as a carrier gas for epitaxy, diffusion and chemical vapour deposition.

In metallurgy, the steel industry, nitrogen is used to:
- Activate shut-off switches in burners and furnaces.
- Purge and stir metal melts by bubbling them through porous bed stones or lances.
- Feed powdered alloy components into steel melts.
- Spray metal melts and gain high-quality metal powders.
- Sinter metallurgical powders under shielding gas purge non-ferrous metal melts to reduce the hydrogen content.
- Stabilise the austenitic structure of stainless steel.
- Shield metal parts during thermal treatment.
- Adjust carbon transfer in heat-treatment furnaces for gas carburization.
- Reduce the carbon content of electric sheet metal in decarbonising annealing.
- Maintain the carbon content of steel parts by carbon-neutral annealing.
- Ensure pest control and fi re safety in silos.
- Protect liquid food from oxidation during storing and filling.

In food technology, nitrogen is used to:
- Ensure pest control and fi re safety in silos
- Preserve fatty or powdered food during fi lling, packing and storing
 - Protect liquid food from oxidation during storing and filling 
- Ensure controlled ripening of stored fruit in combination with “ripening gases”
- Stabilise the internal pressure of thin-walled beverage cans.

In biology and medicine, nitrogen is used to:
- Preserve biological material
- Perform cryosurgery for the specifi c destruction/removal of tissue
- Support the cooling of magnetic resonance imaging scanners

In other industries, nitrogen is used to:
- Avoid self-ignition of coal during handling
- Prevent mine fi res
- Regenerate adsorbers for combustible materials
- Reduce the oxygen content in cooling and storage rooms
- Shield perishable and combustible goods in receptacles and silos .

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